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How we use Fastlane

Ricardo Pereira

If you already know me or if you paid attention to our blog, we use Fastlane a lot to automate some iOS development processes. I wrote about it almost a year ago and I talked about it as well to my fellows Whitesmithians in on of our Lunch’n’Learn sessions. I’m a huge fan of Fastlane. It let us save a ton of time while we are coding. Personally, I hate dealing with version incrementation, code signing, provisioning profiles, etc. Who doesn’t, right? 😅

Let's keep this straightforward and let me show you how we use Fastlane 🚀 and how we get away from all those frustrations.

Fantastic 4

On an app, we always use 4 lanes: setup, test, beta and release.

SETUP 🚝

The setup lane is responsible for setting up a development machine for any new member that is joining the team. It usually runs a couple of commands that install all the dependencies needed. We often use something like setting up CocoaPods, Carthage, etc.

Here is an example:

desc "Setup workspace"  
lane :setup do  
  ## Setup pre-commit hook
  sh "ln -s scripts/pre-commit.sh .git/hooks/pre-commit"
  ## Setup badge to add a beta watermark to your iOS app icon
  sh "gem install badge"
  ## Install CocoaPods
  # Remove old versions
  sh "gem uninstall cocoapods -aIx"
  # v1
  sh "gem install cocoapods -v '1.0.1' --no-rdoc --no-ri --no-document --quiet"
  ## Install Carthage
  sh "brew install carthage || true"
  ## Verify project dependencies
  carthage update
  cocoapods
end  

TEST 🚝

Next, we have a test lane that is really short. We can assume it as a basic task. However, a lane can help you standardize the way that the developer tests the app.

desc "Runs all tests"  
lane :test do |options|  
  # `scan` makes it easy to run tests of your iOS app
  scan skip_slack: (not options[:slack])
end

The lane accepts an optional parameter called slack where the developer can choose if he wants to push a slack message when the test suite fails.

error do |lane, exception, options|  
  if options[:slack]
    slack(message: "<APP_SCHEME> App: " + exception.message, success: false)
  end
end  

BETA 🚝

beta lane is my favorite! Why? Because it does everything for me, that's why 😄. This one runs the test suite, builds a beta release, submits the binary to TestFlight and Crashlytics 🙌.

First of all, there is a sub-lane called version_bump_project that the beta lane uses to increment the version and build a number of the project before it builds the binary. You can call the sub-lane on the terminal as well, independently of any other lane.

desc "Increment the version and build number"  
lane :version_bump_project do |options|  
  # Set build number to current date and time
  build_number = Time.new.strftime("%Y.%m.%d.%H.%M")
  ENV["BUILD_NUMBER"] = build_number
  increment_build_number build_number: build_number
  # Set version number conforming the bump type
  if options[:bump_type]
    increment_version_number bump_type: options[:bump_type]
  end
end  

The lane accepts an important argument named bump_type where it can be patch, minor and major. It will automatically increment the patch, minor, or major version number according to your choice. In this case, the build number will always be the current date and time, so the final result will be something like "v2.1.1 (2016.8.5.9.53)".

Now for the beta, there are many steps to digest. First, we need to bump the project version with

version_bump_project bump_type: options[:bump]  

then we call the badge gem that will add a watermark to your iOS app icon (take a look at the gem).

badge(dark: true)  

This is a nice touch when you want to send the app to someone. He can easily see which version of the app he wants to install or run on his device.

Next, the glorious step!
We use match to prevent code signing issues and to simplify the codesigning setup. It has the great advantage to share one code signing identity across the team. That means that anyone can build a binary quite easily.

For Crashlytics, the match action will retrieve and setup the right AdHoc provisioning profile

match(type: "adhoc")  

Then the binary is created using the current profile

gym(  
  scheme: "<APP_SCHEME>",
  export_method: "ad-hoc",
  xcargs: "APP_PROFILE='#{ENV["sigh_<PRODUCT_BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER>_adhoc"]}'",
)

Note: don't forget to replace <APP_SCHEME> and <PRODUCT_BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER> with your app project information. For example, scheme: "Qold" and xcargs: "APP_PROFILE='#{ENV["sigh_co.whitesmith.qold_adhoc"]}'".

After the successful archive, it is necessary to upload the binary to the Crashlytics service and it is done.

crashlytics(  
  api_token: "???",
  build_secret: "???",
  ipa_path: "./build/<APP_SCHEME>.ipa",
  notes: "Build at " + Time.new.strftime("%H:%M:%S %d.%m.%Y")
)

For TestFlight, it is quite the same but match will select a different profile.

match(type: "appstore")

# Archive
gym(  
  scheme: "<APP_SCHEME>",
  export_method: "app-store",
  xcargs: "APP_PROFILE='#{ENV["sigh_<PRODUCT_BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER>_appstore"]}'",
)

# Submit to iTunes Connect
pilot(  
  skip_submission: true,
  skip_waiting_for_build_processing: true
) # Skip the distribution of the app to all beta testers

We distribute the beta binary to iTunes Connect with the AppStore profile just for convenience. We could be using the same AdHoc profile from Crashlytics. The other way around is not supported (I mean, Crashlytics does not support AppStore profiles. An AdHoc profile always needs a list of registering test devices, so if you use Crashlytics then it gives you more work like registering each test device on the provisioning profile).

Finally, after the archive and upload, the lane can notify that the beta is ready:

slack(message: "Build " + build_number + " is ready.")  

RELEASE 🚝

Now for the release lane, it is quite the same as the beta. You only need to remove the beta badge and just upload it to the AppStore (iTunes Connect).

You can check the full Fastfile here.

Update: I made some changes on how to pass parameters to Fastlane based on this. Thank you @KrauseFx for the tip.

Note: If you want to run a release lane because of a small bug fix, you can do it like fastlane release bump:patch.

Considerations

About building the binary, it is important to setup match correctly. All required keys, certificates, and provisioning profiles should be installed successfully on your machine.

If you want to add more test devices to an AdHoc provision profile that match manage then you just need to add each device on iTunes Connect and run match adhoc --force_for_new_devices true.

We are still in Xcode 7 but if you are already using the new version then check this. Seems that Xcode 8 provides new features to simplify the process of certificate management and app signing.

That's it. I hope that you enjoyed it as much as I did and as always... if you liked it and if you want to receive more posts about us then please subscribe ♥️.


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Ricardo Pereira
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